Methods for dating the universe
This is the same as the initial amount it would not change if there were no parent isotope to decay. Normally it is not possible to measure the abundance of radioactive isotopes in other stars because the lines are too weak. For example, the last rings in the dead tree might match up with rings early in the life of the living tree, so the two trees together can count back many years.
Radiometric dating is based on the half-lives of the radioactive isotopes. To date a rock one must know the original amount of the parent element.
If two or more radiometric clocks based on different elements and running at different rates give the same age, that's powerful evidence that the ages are probably correct. The age of the oldest white dwarf stars. When applied to a mixed together and evolving system like the gas in the Milky Way, no great precision is possible. In any event, it is important to keep these anomalies in perspective. This is also true of anomalies noted in carbon dates.
Sandage even proposed new theories of cosmogony to explain this discrepancy. This method includes carbon dating and thermoluminescence. Another absolute dating method is thermoluminescence, which dates the last time an item was heated. These instruments count the number of decays over a long time. This shows we should not trust radiometric dating.
From this one can determine how much of the daughter isotope would be present if there had been no parent isotope. These methods are based on calculating the date of artefacts in a more precise way using different attributes of materials. Once the rock hardens, however, all the Argon is trapped in the sample, giving us an accurate record of how much Potassium has decayed since that time. Radioactive decay rates have been measured for over sixty years now for many of the decay clocks without any observed changes. Vast amounts of data overwhelmingly favor an old Earth.
For example, sodium and calcium are both common elements, but their chemical behaviours are quite different, so one usually finds sodium and calcium in different grains in a differentiated rock. The periodic table shows the types of atoms that make up the world around us. Used mass spectrometers are currently available at eBay.
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